A partial model
So, to summarise the main points:
In a circuit that has been complete for some time, charges (usually electrons), already everywhere around the circuit, are kept in motion by the battery.
In this steady state, the filament of the bulb is glowing as the charges pass through it. The surroundings are illuminated and warm up.
This is a nugget in the PN thread – connect all three threads from any link
Physics Narrative (PN) Teaching & Learning Issues(TL) Teaching Approaches(TA)