# Decisions for you as you plan to teach …

• ## …01 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• draw out the ideas that students use to make predictions
• separate ideas of current and voltage, met previously
• connect calculations done to ideas used to account for the circuits
• reinforce the difference between series and parallel connections in circuits

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• emphasise the necessity of representing the complete loop as a connected system
• link the phenomena to the toolkits that you use to make predictions
• make the tookits evidently intelligible and fruitful
• use teaching models systematically
• give physical reasons for changes in current as the circuit is altered

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Ee01TL as Ee01TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …02 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• avoid cluttering up learners with inappropriate ideas
• avoid unhelpful experiences
• avoid drowning in a sea of algebra or arithmetic
• keeping ideas of power, energy, charge and current separate

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• avoid using the unhelpful term electrical energy
• introduce the idea of continuing (electrical) working whilst the loop is complete
• distinguish clearly between energy in stores (joule) and power in pathways (watt)
• consistently model series and parallel connections

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Ee02TL as Ee02TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …03 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• discuss dynamic equilibrium, where nothing seems to be happening
• develop precise enough physical descriptions of processes to enable discussions about power and energy to be well grounded
• connect the insights from physics to the lived-in world
• maintain a strategic view when developing multi-step arguments
• link actions with apparatus to accounts with words and diagrams

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• emphasise what many different devices have in common
• make appropriate use of quantification, as being essential to arguments relying on energy and power
• show the uses for ideas such as field
• exploit the idea of compensation

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Ee03TL as Ee03TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …04 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• bring calculations back to the lived-in word
• relate very abstracted descriptions to very practical concerns
• keep power and energy separate, yet related
• keep calculations linked to physical concerns, showing what cannot happen

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• deal with power as that which accumulates energy
• separate descriptions that link snapshot to snapshot from descriptions of processes
• construct explanations in careful, explicit steps

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Ee04TL as Ee04TLnugget01 in the full materials.