# Suggestions for you as you plan to teach …

• ## … episode01 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### There's a good chance you could improve your teaching if you were to:

Try these

• Using and sharing an effective toolkit for thinking about circuits that allows you to make predictions
• interpreting equations as relationships between physical quantities
• giving a physical interpretation to equations
• using a range of representations to relate physical quantities (diagrams, words, mathematics, apparatus)

Teacher Tip: Work through the Physics Narrative to find these lines of thinking worked out and then look in the Teaching Approaches for some examples of activities.

Avoid these

• encouraging the dash to the formula
• using triangles to rearrange equations
• relying on rote substitutions into formulae
• using an incoherent set of ad-hoc rules and metaphors, each of restricted validity

Teacher Tip: These difficulties are distilled from: the research findings; the practice of well-connected teachers with expertise; issues intrinsic to representing the physics well.

This appears as Ee01TL as Ee01TLnugget16 in the full materials.

• ## … episode02 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### There's a good chance you could improve your teaching if you were to:

Try these

• work with an awareness that the majority of experiences that most students have to guide their ideas are based on the classroom
• focus on power and not on energy
• distinguish clearly between energy in stores (joule) and power in pathways (watt)
• work in the present tense What's happening now whilst the circuit loop is complete
• use the circuit loop as a unit of explanation, prediction and analysis
• emphasise that (dissipative) electrical potential differences in a circuit depend on a complete loop

Teacher Tip: Work through the Physics Narrative to find these lines of thinking worked out and then look in the Teaching Approaches for some examples of activities.

Avoid these

• electrical energy
• sequential analogies of the working of electric circuits
• ad-hoc algorithms for calculating and predicting
• conflating gravitational potential difference with electrical potential difference

Teacher Tip: These difficulties are distilled from: the research findings; the practice of well-connected teachers with expertise; issues intrinsic to representing the physics well.

This appears as Ee02TL as Ee02TLnugget08 in the full materials.

• ## … episode03 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### There's a good chance you could improve your teaching if you were to:

Try these

• developing physical descriptions before accounts that use energy and power
• using apparatus, words and diagrams together to develop accounts
• emphasising the practical consequences of calculations with power and energy
• putting new theoretical ideas to work to imbue them with meaning

Teacher Tip: Work through the Physics Narrative to find these lines of thinking worked out and then look in the Teaching Approaches for some examples of activities.

Avoid these

• replacing the physical arguments with mnemonics
• arguing about power and energy without quantifying
• conflating different steps of multistep arguments
• not making links between different devices, all of which switch power

Teacher Tip: These difficulties are distilled from: the research findings; the practice of well-connected teachers with expertise; issues intrinsic to representing the physics well.

This appears as Ee03TL as Ee03TLnugget13 in the full materials.

• ## … episode04 of the SPT topic: Electricity and Energy

### There's a good chance you could improve your teaching if you were to:

Try these

• using efficiency as a technical term, perhaps reserving effectiveness for the more general idea of getting stuff done well
• using apparatus, words and diagrams together to develop accounts
• developing physical descriptions before accounts that use energy and power
• emphasising the practical consequences of calculations with power and energy

Teacher Tip: Work through the Physics Narrative to find these lines of thinking worked out and then look in the Teaching Approaches for some examples of activities.

Avoid these

• calculating without sharing the purpose of the calculations
• running together different steps of multi-step arguments
• confusing snapshots with processes

Teacher Tip: These difficulties are distilled from: the research findings; the practice of well-connected teachers with expertise; issues intrinsic to representing the physics well.

This appears as Ee04TL as Ee04TLnugget06 in the full materials.