# Decisions for you as you plan to teach …

• ## …01 of the SPT topic: Earth in Space

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• emphasise that the pull of gravity depends on the environment
• keep separate the effects of atmosphere and the pull of gravity
• establish gravity as a universal force, occurring everywhere
• establish gravity as a universal force, acting on stationary and moving objects
• use the term force of gravity consistently
• connect interactions on this Earth with those occurring elsewhere in the universe

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• keep force and energy separate
• explicitly model the action of gravity as a force exerted by the environment
• introduce a variety of contexts to explore how the pull of gravity varies
• draw the force of gravity acting on objects
• describe the variation in the force of gravity with separation
• account for the variation in the magnitude of the force of gravity
• use the idea of a field
• separate the force of gravity acting on an object from the mass of the object
• account for objects with different masses falling at the same rate
• communicate an accurate understanding of mass
• provide a coherent account of the experience of weightlessness

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Es01TL as Es01TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …02 of the SPT topic: Earth in Space

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• introduce the wide variety of objects that function as satellites
• draw out ideas of what a natural motion might be
• explore expectations about satellites falling back to Earth
• draw out any difficulties with the motion of satellites
• introduce a wide range of uses for artificial satellites
• include natural satellites alongside artificial satellites

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• account for circular motion
• explain the need for a centripetal force
• distinguish between orbiting and spinning on an axis
• draw diagrams to distinguish between geostationary and circumpolar orbits for satellites

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Es02TL as Es02TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …03 of the SPT topic: Earth in Space

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• distinguish between stars, planets and other astronomical objects
• make the scales of distances and times meaningful
• avoid getting buried in the history
• enliven the physics using the history

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• make older theories intelligible and credible
• link how we know to what we know
• present a credible, yet lightweight, philosophy of physics

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Es03TL as Es03TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …04 of the SPT topic: Earth in Space

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• organise what pupils have observed into a coherent whole
• build three-dimension models where illumination is important
• draw out what children believe about the Earth-Moon-Sun system and how this is related to everyday phenomena

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• build a sequence that uses increasingly complex models
• keep each step of the simplification in building the models connected with the whole
• distinguish between spinning on an axis and orbiting another object
• keep what is noticed and recorded somewhat separate from what is modelled

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Es04TL as Es04TLnugget01 in the full materials.