# Decisions for you as you plan to teach …

• ## …01 of the SPT topic: Forces

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• draw on learners experience of, and ideas about, their own actions and relate these to force
• explore and expose children's ideas about forces
• draw out children's everyday ideas about motion and the forces required
• introduce children to a new way of seeingâ€”with forces

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• connect interactions between objects with the idea of a force
• represent objects simply, particularly extended objects
• develop a consistent graphical language for your arrows, representing a force ontology

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Fo01TL as Fo01TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …02 of the SPT topic: Forces

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• convince children that inanimate things can push, just like they can
• develop the idea that a mechanism underpins the interaction that is replaced by force
• convince children that air can exert forces

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• relate floating and sinking to forces, not to rules about displaced fluids
• relate friction to the mechanisms of friction
• focus on the physical reasons for placing arrows
• justify omitting arrows from some diagrams

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Fo02TL as Fo02TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …03 of the SPT topic: Forces

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• draw on children's own experience of action at the distance, probably through experiences with magnets
• draw on children's experiences, some of which will be vicarious, to establish the reality of gravity in space
• explore something of the mystery of action at a distance

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• relate electric, magnetic and gravity forces, without conflating them
• separate the mass of an object from the force of gravity acting on an object, without being dogmatic
• treat freefall as a natural motion

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in Fo03TL as Fo03TLnugget01 in the full materials.