# Decisions for you as you plan to teach …

• ## …01 of the SPT topic: Sound

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• focus on the physical aspect of the transmission of sound
• build a source–medium–detector model
• put the source–medium–detector model to use
• make connections with travelling electromagnetic vibrations
• connect vibrating objects to travelling vibrations
• connect hearing to the source–medium–detector model

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• draw the spread of the vibrations
• describe and make real the to and fro vibrations
• prepare the ground for frequency and amplitude being the fundamental characteristics
• draw vibrating objects
• unify a wide range of experiences with a single model

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in So01TL as So01TLnugget01 in the full materials.

• ## …02 of the SPT topic: Sound

### Bringing together two sets of constraints

Focusing on the learners:

Distinguishing–eliciting–connecting. How to:

• keep amplitude and frequency separate, each with their own vocabulary
• separate the to and fro movement of the particles that forms the vibration from the propagation of the vibration, which is also a movement
• explore the range of hearing, along both the amplitude and frequency axes
• connect human hearing to what other species can hear
• ensure that the need for particles as a medium is always there
• link each sound heard back to the source, via the medium

Teacher Tip: These are all related to findings about children's ideas from research. The teaching activities will provide some suggestions. So will colleagues, near and far.

Focusing on the physics:

Representing–noticing–recording. How to:

• reinforce the source–medium–detector model
• represent the vibrations of the source
• represent the vibrations in the medium
• represent the vibrations of the detector
• account for reductions in intensity with distance from the source
• link delays in hearing sounds to the trip time of propagation from the source
• show sounds travelling through solids and liquids, as well as gases
• measure the frequency of a sound
• measure the amplitude of a sound

Teacher Tip: Connecting what is experienced with what is written and drawn is essential to making sense of the connections between the theoretical world of physics and the lived-in world of the children. Don't forget to exemplify this action.

This appears in So02TL as So02TLnugget01 in the full materials.